Monday, February 6, 2012

Report Text (Updated)


Teks report adalah teks yang mendeskripsikan sesuatu / benda-benda secara umum, misalnya berbagai benda/fenomena alam, buatan, dan sosial yang ada atau terjadi di lingkungan kita.

Struktur teks report:
1. General classification (klasifikasi umum) :
Pengantar tentang sesuatu / fenomena yang akan dibahas.

2. Description (deskripsi) :
Menerangkan sesuatu/ fenomena yang dibahas, meliputi bagian-bagian, kualitas, dan perilaku.

Ciri-ciri teks report

·  menggunakan the simple present tense, kecuali apabila sudah punah menggunakan past tense,
·  menggunakan action verbs, misalnya: surround, make, begin, etc.

Contoh:

I've once heard someone who said that "All I know is what I read in newspapers." This is an uncommon expression, but I'm sure it is true that newspapers are important sources of information. Many people begin their day by reading the papers. In this way they learn what is going on in the world. However, sometimes they don't have time to read the news carefully and must be satisfied with a quick look at the front page; at other times they may be in such a hurry that they only have time to glance at this headline.
There are newspapers to satisfy every reader in big cities there are many types of papers, with several different editions every day. Some years ago in small towns there were fewer newspapers and perhaps only one edition each day, but now the situation is different. In some areas, the papers are printed weekly.
Most newspapers have several sections especially on Sunday when the edition is larger that usual. There are, in addition to the front page with the most important news, the sports section, the society page, the comics, and the amusement section the business page and the editorial.
Another type of publication which helps people keep informed is a magazine. Some magazines are published weekly; others are issued monthly. There are news magazines and magazines for special interests such as photography, sport, art and music. Some are primarily for men, others for women, and there is a selection of children's magazines too.
Adapted from: English 900 by ENGLISH Language Service;

Read the text and answer questions 1 to 4.

Chimpanzees are humans' closest relatives compared to any other ape. They like to stay on the ground, but they climb among the trees. Their hands and feet can easily grip branches and objects, because their hobby is swinging. Chimps like to search for termites, ants and never refuse of sweet fruit and nuts. Chimpanzees communicate with each other using a wide variety of sound.

1. What is the favorite place for chimpanzees to stay?
A. Among the trees.
B. On the branches.
C. On the ground.
D. On a certain object.

(Ujian Nasional 2008/2009)

2. The followings are chimpanzees' food, except......
A. small mammals
B. little insects
C. sweet fruits
D. nuts

(Ujian Nasional 2008/2009)

3. What does the text tell us about?
A. Chimpanzees' physical appearance.
B. Chimpanzees' habitats.
C. The diet of chimpanzees.
D. Chimpanzees' habits

(Ujian Nasional 2008/2009)

4. "Chimpanzees are humans' closest relatives compared to any other ape”. What does the word "relatives" mean?
A. A thing that belongs to the same group as something else.
B. The process of comparing two or more people or things.
C. The position of somebody or something in organization.
D. The way people behave in a certain group.

(Ujian Nasional 2008/2009)

Read the text and answer questions 5 to 8.

Jellyfish are not really fish. They are invertebrate animals. This means that unlike fish or people, they have no backbones. In fact, they have no bones at all.
Jellyfish have stomachs and mouths, but no heads. They have nervous systems for sensing the world around them, but no brains. They are made almost entirely of water, which is why you can look through them.
Some jellyfish can glow in darkness by making their own light. The light is made by a chemical reaction inside the jellyfish. Scientists believe jellyfish glow for several reasons. For example, they may glow to scare away predators or to attract animals they like to eat.
Most jellyfish live in salt water, apart from a few types that live in fresh water. Jellyfish are found in oceans and seas all over the world. They live in warm, tropical seas and in icy waters near the North and South poles.

5. Which one creates jellyfish's light?
A. White blood.
B. Nervous system.
C. Chemical reaction.
D. Salt water.

(Ujian Nasional 2008/2009)

6. Which one is TRUE about the jellyfish based on the text?
A. They belong to invertebrate animals.
B. They have heads like other animals.
C. Their brains help them find the food.
D. They cannot live in fresh water.

(Ujian Nasional 2008/2009)

7. What is the text about?
A. Jellyfish.
B. Kinds of all fish.
C. All invertebrate animals.
D. Some kinds of sea animals.

(Ujian Nasional 2008/2009)

8. "Some jellyfish can glow in darkness by making their own light." (Paragraph 3) The word "glow" in the sentence means ....
A. move
B. produce
C. appear
D. shine

(Ujian Nasional 2008/2009)

Read the following text and answer questions 9 to 11


What is the Significance of
Rabbits' Large Ears?
A rabbit is a small fury mammal with a short tail and pointed ears. Rabbits live in burrows in the ground. Each burrow is the home of a single family. The first fossils which can be attributed to this family came from North America, but now they are found in every part of the world. Compared to its small body, rabbit has large-sized ears.
A rabbit is a weak and timid animal and is always surrounded by many enemies. Therefore, nature has gifted it with large ears to help it to hear even the fun of drop sound. The large area of the ear catches almost every sound wave produced in the air and transfers them into the inner ear. This makes the rabbit detect its enemies in time and run to safety zones.
You must have noticed that a rabbit washes its ears by repeatedly licking its forepaws and rubbing them over the surface of its ears. It does this in order to keep its ears clean and also to take into its mouth natural oil which surrounds the ear surface. This oil is important in forming vitamin D which is necessary for the growth of healthy bones. If the rabbit is not allowed to form this, it will develop rickets.
Shortened from: Children's Knowledge Bank, Look Out, Rohan Book Company

9. Which part of the rabbit's body produces natural oil? It's ....
A. forepaws
B. mouth
C. ears
D. tail

(Ujian Nasional 2007/2008)

10. What is the main idea of paragraph 2 ?
A. How enemies surround a rabbit.
B. How a rabbit detects its enemies.
C. Why a rabbit has many enemies
D. Why a rabbit likes lighting.

(Ujian Nasional 2007/2008)

Tips

Soal semacam ini merupakan pertanyaan tentang main idea (gagasan pokok). Main idea adalah keterangan, penjelasan, uraian atau pendapat penulis tentang topik. Jika pertanyaan tentang main idea, jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. Kalimat yang biasa digunakan untuk menanyakan main idea adalah "What is the main idea of paragraph ...?", dan "The main idea of paragraph3 is...:'. Untuk mengetahui main idea sebuah paragraf, perhatikan hal-hal berikut.

1. Pahami keseluruhan isi teks / paragraf karena gagasan utama dapat berada di awal, tengah, maupun akhir teks/paragraf.
2. Kelompokkan kalimat / paragraf menjadi gagasan utama dan gagasan pendukung. Sebagai contoh: perhatikan kalimat-kalimat da/am paragraf dua. Gagasan utama paragraf tersebut berada di akhir paragraf, yaitu 'This makes the rabbit ....". Gagasan pendukung paragraf tersebut adalah ciri-ciri kelinci yang membuatnya memiliki telinga yang besar serta fungsi telinga kelinci yang besar.

11. The purpose of the text is ....
A. to amuse the readers
B. to retell rabbits' habitat
C. to describe rabbits' ears
D. to describe rabbits in general

(Ujian Nasional 2007/2008)

Soal di atas tentang menentukan maksud/tujuan teks. Maksud / tujuan teks merupakan tujuan ditulisnya teks tersebut. Tiap-tiap teks memiliki maksud / tujuan yang berbeda-beda, sesuai dengan jenis teksnya.

Berikut ini adalah berbagai jenis teks beserta tujuannya.

1. Tujuan teks procedure adalah menerangkan cara membuat/melakukan sesuatu setahap demi setahap dengan menggunakan langkah yang urut.
2. Tujuan teks descriptive adalah menjelaskan sebuah benda, orang, atau tempat tertentu.
3. Tujuan teks narrative adalah menghibur pembaca.
4. Tujuan teks recount adalah menceritakan pengalaman yang lalu/telah terjadi.
5. Tujuan teks report adalah menjelaskan sesuatu apa s adanya, secara umum.

Apabila ada pertanyaan tentang tujuan teks, lakukan hal-hal berikut :

1. Identifikasi jenis teks tersebut.
2. Ingatlah tujuan tiap-tiap teks yang ada

Read the text and answer questions 12 to 14.

Whales are sea-living mammals. They, therefore, breathe air, but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30 m in length; is the largest animal to have lived on earth. Superficially, the whale looks like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical), and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lays a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to converse heat and body fluids.

12. What is the text about?
A. Kinds of fish.
B. The whales.
C. Sea animals.
D. All mammals.

(Ujian Nasional 2006/2007)

13. The following are the proofs that whales are fish, except ....
A. it has a single nostril
B. it cannot survive on land
C. the skin is smooth and shiny
D. its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles

(Ujian Nasional 2006/2007)

14. "..., is the largest animal to have lived on earth. What does the underlined word above mean?
A. Tallest.
B. Fastest.
C. Smallest.
D. Biggest.

(Ujian Nasional 2006/2007)

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